Student Exploration: Phase Changes Vocabulary icon

Student Exploration: Phase Changes Vocabulary

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TitleStudent Exploration: Phase Changes Vocabulary
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Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________


Student Exploration: Phase Changes


Vocabulary: altitude, boil, boiling point, freeze, freezing point, gas, liquid, melt, melting point, phase, solid


Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)


  1. A family from Minnesota turns off the heat and flies to Florida for a winter holiday. When they come home, all of their water pipes have burst. What do you think happened?


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. Spaghetti takes about 9 minutes to cook at sea level, but about 14 minutes in the mountains. Why do you think this is so?


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________


G

izmo Warm-up


In the Phase Changes Gizmo™, select the Micro view and set the Ice volume to 50 cc. Click Play () and observe molecules in the solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (air) phases.


  1. In which phase(s) are the molecules held rigidly together?


______________________________________________



  1. In which phase(s) do the molecules move freely?


______________________________________________


  1. In which phase(s) are the molecules held in a defined shape? ________________________




  1. In which phase(s) do the molecules take the shape of their container? _________________


_________________________________________________________________________



Activity A:


Phase changes

Get the Gizmo ready:

  • Click Reset () and select Macro view.

  • Set Ice volume to 0 cc.




Question: How is temperature related to phase changes?


  1. Predict: Based on your prior knowledge, predict the following:




      1. At what temperature will water change from a liquid to a solid (freeze)? _______




      1. At what temperature will water change from a solid to a liquid (melt)? _______




      1. At what temperature will water change from a liquid to a gas (boil)? _______




  1. Investigate: Use the Gizmo to explore phase changes. Use the Water temperature and Add/remove heat energy sliders to control the water temperature. Record your observations in your notes, then answer the questions below:




      1. At what temperature does water freeze? _______ This is the freezing point.




      1. At what temperature does ice melt? _______ This is the melting point.




      1. At what temperature does water boil? _______ This is the boiling point.




  1. Observe: Set up the Gizmo to observe freezing. What do you notice about the temperature while the water is in the process of freezing? _____________________________________




  1. Explore: Use the Gizmo to investigate melting and boiling. Does the temperature change as either of these phase changes is occurring? ______________________________________




  1. Interpret: Select the GRAPH tab to see a graph of temperature vs. time. Click the “” button until the whole graph is visible. What does the graph look like during a phase change?


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. ^ Extend your thinking: Why do you think the temperature does not change much during a phase change? If possible, discuss your answer with your classmates and teacher.


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________


Activity B:


Temperature and molecular motion

Get the Gizmo ready:

  • Click Reset, and select the Micro view.

  • Set Ice volume to 0 cc.

  • Set Add/remove heat energy to 0 J/s.




Question: Why do phase changes occur?

­­­­­­

  1. Compare: Set the Water temperature to 0 °C and click Play. Observe the water molecules. Click Reset, set the Water temperature to 100 °C, and click Play again.


What do you notice? ________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. Observe: Click ^ Reset. The mean molecular speed of the water molecules is displayed below the container. Set the Water temperature to 0 °C and Add/remove heat energy to 400 J/s. Click Play.




      1. How does the average speed of the water molecules change as they are heated?


________________________________________________________________


      1. Does the mean molecular speed change as much as the temperature as the water heats up? Explain.


________________________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________



  1. Explain: How is temperature related to the motions of molecules? ­­_____________________


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. Observe: Click ^ Reset. Set the Water temperature to 20 °C and the Ice volume to 50 cc. Set Add/remove heat energy to 0 J/s. Click Play. How do the molecules in the liquid interact with the molecules in the solid?


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________


(Activity B continued on next page)

Activity B (continued from previous page)


  1. Observe: Click Reset. Set the Water temperature to 100 °C and the Ice volume to 50 cc. Click Play. How does this situation compare to the previous one?


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. ^ Propose a theory: Based on what you have observed, explain why you think phase changes occur. If possible, discuss your theory with your classmates and teacher.


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. ^ Extend your thinking: Click Reset. Set the Water temperature to 0 °C, the Ice volume to 0 cc, and Add/remove heat energy to -400 J/s. Click Play and wait until all the water freezes.




      1. What volume of ice is created from 200 cc of water? _________________________




      1. Why do water pipes sometimes burst in the winter? __________________________


___________________________________________________________________


Extension:


Altitude and phase changes

Get the Gizmo ready:

  • Click Reset.

  • Set Ice volume to 0 cc.

  • Set the Altitude to 5,000 meters (16,404 feet).




Question: The altitude of a location is its vertical distance above sea level. How does altitude affect phase changes?

­­­­­­

  1. Form a hypothesis: As altitude increases, the air pressure decreases. How do you think the lower pressure will affect the following? (Circle your answers.)




      1. Freezing point: Increase Stay the same Decrease




      1. Melting point: Increase Stay the same Decrease




      1. Boiling point: Increase Stay the same Decrease




  1. Experiment: Use the Gizmo to find the freezing, melting, and boiling points of water at 5,000 meters (16,404 feet). Write these values below.


Freezing point: _______ Melting point: _______ Boiling point: _______



  1. Analyze: How did altitude affect the freezing, melting, and boiling points of water?


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. Challenge: Try to explain these results based on the fact that air pressure decreases with altitude. If possible, discuss your ideas with your classmates and teacher.


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. Apply: Why does pasta take longer to cook in the mountains? ________________________


_________________________________________________________________________



  1. Apply: A pressure cooker allows food to be cooked under high pressure. Why is this useful?


_________________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________




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